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PNEUMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTING

We are using scissors for simple sheet metal cutting. It is a manual method so that sheet metals are to be wasted sometime because of
mistakes happened such as wrong dimensions etc., and also even a simple cutting may take long time.Hydraulic machines are also
available for sheet metal cutting. But this method is used for only heavy metal cutting and its cost is very high.We are using a pneumatic system for sheet metal cutting in a easy way. It is operated by a pneumatic hand lever of two way control valve.Control valve is operated by a compressor.
 COMPONENTS USED
  • Double acting
    cylinder
  • Pneumatic hand
    operated valve
  • High speed steel
    blade

 Working Of Sheet metal Cutter

 

The pneumatic machine includes a table with support arms to hold the sheet, stops or guides to secure the sheet, upper and lower straight – edge blades, a gauging device to precisely position the sheet. The table also includes the two way directional valve. The two way directional valve is connected to the compressor. The compressor has a piston for a movable member. The piston is connected to a crankshaft, which is in turn connected to a prime mover (electricmotor, internal combustion engine). At inlet and outlet ports, valves allow air toenter and exit the chamber. When the compressor is switched ON, the compressed air is flow to inlet of the pneumatic cylinder.
The sheet is placed between the upper and the lower blade. The lower blade remains stationary while the upper blade is forced downward.
The upper blade is slightly offset from the lower blade, approximately 5 – 10% of the sheet thickness. Also the upper blade is usually angled so that the cut progresses from one end to the other, thus reducing the required force.
When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved forward, the piston starts moving in the forward direction. The upper blade which are then forced against the sheet, cutting the material. When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved backward, the upper blade will come to the original position (i.e., the upper blade will move upwards).
After the material is cut, adjust the pneumatic hand lever to the mid position (i.e., normal position) and then the compressor is switched
OFF.

APPLICATIONS

Sheet metals are used in
  • Car bodies
  • Airplane wings
  • Medical tables
  • Roofs for buildings (Architectural) and many other things
  • Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic permeability, also known as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformers and electric machines.
  • Historically, an important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry, and sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in horse tack.
ADVANTAGES
  • Low cost
  • Less consumption of
    time
  • Easy to handle
  • Skilled labor is
    not required
  • Less maintainance
  • High accuracy
  • Good surface finish
  • Less floor space
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Pantograph for train engin

The electric transmission system for modern electric rail systems consists of an upper, weight-carrying wire (known as a catenary) from which is suspended a contact wire. The pantograph is spring-loaded and pushes a contact shoe up against the underside of the contact wire to draw the current needed to run the train. The steel rails of the tracks act as the electrical return. As the train moves, the contact shoe slides along the wire and can set up standing waves in the wires which break the contact and degrade current collection. This means that on some systems adjacent pantographs are not permitted.

A Flexity Outlook LRV with its pantograph raised. Note the trolley pole in the rear, which provides compatibility with sections not yet upgraded for pantograph operation.
Pantographs are the successor technology to trolley poles, which were widely used on early streetcar systems. Trolley poles are still used by trolleybuses, whose freedom of movement and need for a two-wire circuit makes pantographs impractical, and some streetcar networks, such as the Toronto streetcar system, which have frequent turns sharp enough to require additional freedom of movement in their current collection to ensure unbroken contact. However, many of these networks, including Toronto’s, are undergoing upgrades to accommodate pantograph operation.

Pantographs with overhead wires are now the dominant form of current collection for modern electric trains because, although more fragile than a third rail system, they allow the use of higher voltages.

Pantographs are typically operated by compressed air from the vehicle’s braking system, either to raise the unit and hold it against the conductor or, when springs are used to effect the extension, to lower it. As a precaution against loss of pressure in the second case, the arm is held in the down position by a catch. For high-voltage systems, the same air supply is used to “blow out” the electric arc when roof-mounted circuit breakers are used

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Pneumatic Powered Wall Climbing Robot

 

We here use pneumatic power in order to develop a smart wall climbing robot. The robot makes use of pneumatic power for movement as well as suction in order to cling to the wall. The system is a smart mixture of pneumatic, mechanical and electronic circuitry that allows to achieve this task. The robotic system consists of 2 pneumatic pistons in order to achieve the movement. We make use of valves and drive them electronically in order to achieve the desired movement. Also we make use of suction cups at the end rods in order to achieve vaccum based suction. We use vaccum ejector pistons and drive them through valves to operate the vaccum based system parallel to the pneumatic systems in coordination in order to achieve the desired mechanism. As a result of the coordinated movements of these systems we get a fully function pneumatic based wall climbing robot.

Components
Pneumatic Cylinders
Vaccum Ejectors
Connecting Rods
Pneumatic Pipes
Pneumatic Fittings
Pneumatic Valves
Joints & Screws
Controller Circuitry

Advantages
Spider Like Climbing
Ability To Vertical Transportation

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Automatic Tyre Inflation System

Driven by studies that show that a drop in tyre pressure by just a few PSI can result in the reduction of gas mileage, tire life, safety, and vehicle performance, we have developed an automatic, self-inflating tire system that ensures that tyres are properly inflated at all times.  Our design proposes and successfully implements the use of a portable compressor that will supply air to all four tyres via hoses and a rotary joint fixed between the wheel spindle and wheel hub at each wheel. The rotary joints effectively allow air to be channelled to the tyres  without the tangling of hoses. With the recent oil price hikes and growing concern of environmental issues, this system addresses a potential improvement in gas mileage; tyre wear reduction; and an increase in handling and tyre performance in diverse conditions.


Proper Inflation Pressure
The most important factors in tire care are:

  • Proper Vehicle Loading
  • Proper Tire Wear
  • Regular Inspection
  • Good Driving Habits
  • Vehicle Condition
Introduction To Tyre Inflation System:
 
LAYOUT OF TYRE INFLATION SYSTEM:
 
LAYOUT OF TYRE INFLATION SYSTEM:
1.  COMPRESSOR
12V Car Electric Air Compressor Tyre Pump – Tyre Inflator also for Bikes, Cycles, Boats, Inflatable Toys 100% Brand New 12V Air Compressor/Tyre Infiltrator Simply use this for fast & easy inflation of car tires” No strength required for pumping air as it is all electronic & is powered directly from your car battery Perfect for   anyone who wants a ease while inflating a tyre Time saving as compared to mechanical pump .Quick operation, very Compact and easy to store in car dickey SUITABLE For:-  Auto tyres, Car/ bike tyres, rubber rafts balls Inflates car tyres, bicycle tyres, rafts and sports equipment such as Basketball, Soccer fast and      easily.  Also inflates boats, pools, air bed, balloon, etc.
2. SOLENOID VALVES 
2/2 air solenoid valves are direct acting solenoid valves and do not require a minimum operating differential pressure. As shown below when the coil is energized (right diagram), it lifts the solenoid plunger, which normally rests on the valve seat and lifts it to open the main valve orifice. When the coil is de-energized (right diagram), the spring force the plunger return to the valve seat to close the valve orifice.
3. PRESSURE SENSOR 
A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids. Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area. A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. For the purposes of this article, such a signal is electrical.
Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications. Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables such as fluid/gas flow, speed, water level, and altitude. Pressure sensors can alternatively be called pressure transducers, pressure transmitters, pressure senders, pressure indicators and piezometers, manometers, among other names.
Pressure sensors can vary drastically in technology, design, performance, application suitability and cost. A conservative estimate would be that there may be over 50 technologies and at least 300 companies making pressure sensors worldwide.
4. ROTARY JOINT
We are designing this device for common passenger vehicles, and the main challenge is the presence of the axle shaft that runs straight into the centre of the wheel forcing us to find an alternative method of routing the air. Our proposed solution to this challenge is to place rotary joint that has one half spinning with the drive axle hub and the other half stationary with the spindle. Within this rotary joint will be an air chamber that will allow air to pass from the stationary half of the joint into the half that is rotating.
5. PRESSURE SWITCH
A pressure switch is a form of switch that makes electrical contact when a certain set pressure has been reached on its input. This is used to provide on/off switching from a pneumatic or hydraulic source. The switch may be designed to make contact either on pressure rise or on pressure fall
6. CAR BATTERY 12 V
An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. Usually this refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine.
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Tube Bending Machine

        Tube Bending Machine mechanical Project

Tube Bending Machine

In tube rolling industry a wide range of power and hand operated machines are used. As the industry is a large and growing industry different type of machines are used for different operations.
Our project the tube rolling machine is very simple in operation by using spur gear arrangement which is coupled with motor. This machine produces round tube of different diameters and length. This machine can be used in various fields. This machine consist of two spur gear which is coupled with a motor and connecting the spur gear shaft with rolling main shaft. This machine is simple in
construction and working principle.
INTRODUCTION
Tube rolling industry is a large and growing industry. There are many special purposes machines used in this industry to-day. The proper selection of the machines depends upon the type of the work under-taken by the particular industry.
There are many examples of tube, which can be seen in our every day lives. The metals generally used for tube rolling work include iron, copper, tin, aluminium, stainless and brass. Our project the “TUBE ROLLING MACHINE” finds huge application in all tube rolling industry. Rolling is the process of bending metal wire to a curved form. The article in the shape of round is made by tube roller shaft. Rolling operation can be done on hand or power operated rolling machines.
In forming round tube shapes a gradual curve is to be put in the metal rather than sharp bends. The gap between the tubes can be regulated by proper arrangement. The lock nut is used to fixing the tube wire to the rolling shaft. The single phase induction motor is coupled with the spur gear arrangement by pulleys. The motor is rotated by switch on the power supply of single phase. The spur gear is rotated due to the rotation of motor. The spur gear is coupled with the main shaft by bearing.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
The single phase supply is given to the induction motor, it will run. The motor pulley is coupled to the spur gear pulley with the help of belt. The spur gear arrangement is run according to the speed of the motor. Before switch on the induction motor, the tube wire is locked to the lock nut in the tube rolling shaft. The tube rolling shaft is rotated when the single phase induction motor switched ON. The tube wire is rolling in the rolling shaft due to the rotation of the tube rolling shaft. The length of the rolling tube is decided by the operator. The required length of the tube is rolled; the single phase induction motor is switched OFF. The tube is cut by the cutter, the next above procedure continue once again for the next tube operation.
ADVANTAGES
  1. Easy in Construction and Working Principle.
  2. Man power requirement is less.
  3. High production.
  4. Length of the tube is varied.
  5. Production cost is reduced.
  6. Low Cost.
  7. Maintenance cost is very low.
  8. Unit is compact so less space is required.
  9. Time consumption is less.
  10. Less effort & productive.
  11. Easy to install at any were.
  12. Skilled workers are not required.
  13. Convenient for mass production.
  14. Less in weight.
APPLICATIONS
  1. Small Scale industries such as tube rolling, other rolling etc.
  2. Wire rolling industries.
  3. All tube rolling industries.
DISADVANTAGES
  1. This machine is applicable for particular diameter of the tube.
  2. This machine is used to produce soft tube wire only.
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pipe inspection robot Report Free Download

Design and Fabrication Of Pipe Inspection Robot
A pipe inspection robot is device that is inserted into pipes to check for obstruction or damage. These robots are traditionally manufactured offshore, are extremely expensive, and are often not adequately supported in the event or malfunction. This had resulted in associated environmental services limited. A Newzealand utilize of this equipment, facing significant periods of down time as they wait for their robots to be the repaired. Recently, they were informing that several robots were no longer supported.
This project was conceived to redesign the electronics control systems one of these PIR, utilizing the existing mechanical platform. Requirements for the robot were that it must operate reliably in confined, dark and wet environments and provides a human wears with a digital video feed of the internal status of the pipes.
There robot should as much as possible incorporate off the shaft components, cheap, and potentially onsite repair. This project details the redesign and constructions of such robots. It employees there electronic boards integrated with mechanical components and provides video feedback via custom graphical interface although at the prototypes state the electronics has been successful with cost of less than a length of the original robot purchase prize.
Pipe Defects Which need to be Inspected:
  1. Buckle: regular buckle and sharp buckle
  2. Ovality
  3. Wrinkle
  4. Knob
  5. Rolling imperfection or angularity
  6. Tube expansion
  7. Joint imperfection: edge displacement and angle error
Design criteria For Pipe inspection Robot :
Design of the inspection robot depends on two main critical factors: size and shape of the pipeline. It will weigh strongly on the maneuverability of robot and its dimensions.
An ideal robot should:
1. drive through a pipe that can change its diameter along his pattern;
2. cope with elbows and branches, reducer, valves with unexpected mechanical damages that could change its mechanical configuration;
3. have sufficient traction to move and to carry out tasks as measurements or clogging detection in a slippery and not plane surface as a pipe
4. be robust and reliable
Advantages
  1. The pipe inspection robot inspects situation inside the pipe which will be recorded and displayed on the monitor screen, it also facilitates working personnel for effective observation, detection, quick analysis and diagnosis.
  2. Save comprehensive investment, improve work efficiency, more accurate detection.
  3. Reduce the frequency of entering into the testing environment.
  4. Operating cost related to other method is low.
  5. Cost of manufacturing of this robot is relatively low.
Limitation of pipe inspection robot
  1. Pipe inspection robots have such limitations as their ability to turn in a T-shaped pipe or move in a plug valve.
  2. Another drawback of earlier robots is that the friction between the pipe and the cables for communication and power supply makes it difficult to move a long distance. A fiber optic communication system can reduce the friction.
  3. This robot does not work in water.
  4. This robot works only in empty pipe.
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Automatic Pneumatic Bumper For Four Wheeler 

 

Description: Many years ago, wheels were the part of a log and it slowly utilized for carts and wagons. The wooden wheel utilized was hard wood stakes. Trucks have become the backbone of the workforce in the world. They are large, strong and could be move on roughest of terrains. Truck rims should be placed if they are cracked.

project of truck rims are manufactured in the similar manner. It begins with tough hub and 4 to 6 holes for the bolts. Truck wheels require durable which carry some weight. Lighter wheels are developed by decreasing unsprung mass and permit suspension to follow the terrain and develop grip. Better heat conduction spends heat from the brakes that develops braking function in driving situations and decreases the brake failure because of overheating. The spun steel rim is saved with welds series. The rim is balanced and provided the smooth finishing.

The wheel rim is the portion of automotive. It includes static loads and fatigue loads like wheel rim moves various road profile. It improves high stresses in rim to search the serious stress point. The alloy of steel and light are important materials utilized in a wheel consisting glass-fiber. Different wheels are Wire Spoke Wheel, Steel Disc Wheel, and Light Alloy Wheel. The steel rims are present in silver and chrome and many finishes are secured for alloy wheels.

Conclusion:

The wheel rim is the outer circular concept of the metal where corner of the tyre is climbed on automobiles like vehicles. The automotive steel wheel rim is created with rectangular metal. The metal plate is made curved to generate the cylindrical sleeve with the two corners of the sleeve joined together.

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Automatic Blackboard / Whiteboard Cleaner System

Cleaning blackboards or whiteboards consumes a lot of time while teaching. We here propose an automated blackboard, whiteboard cleaning mechanism that cleans entire boards automatically with just a button click. Our system uses a set of frames, brackets, supporting rods, Dusters, motor, rollers and driving circuitry in order to achieve this mechanism. The system is designed to save a lot of time and unnecessary effort needed in cleaning boards. It is designed to clean boards in a less than half the time required to clean the blackboard/whiteboard by a human. For this purpose we use dusters mounted on shafts which are inturn connected on a supporting frame . These shafts are connected in such a way, so as to provide a proper circular cleaning motion that is needed for cleaning the board. We now use a motor to drive these shafts in required direction. Now we also need to ensure entire board gets cleaned. So we use a set of rollers to mount the upper and lower part of frame in that section. We now use a second motor to drive the entire duster frame in a horizontal motion so that we get the entire board cleaned as the frame reaches the other end of the board. Thus we put forward the design and fabrication of an automatic blackboard/whiteboard cleaner mechanism.

 

Components:
Dusters
Shaft
Connecting rods
supporting Frame
Rollers
DC Motor
Horizontal Support Frame
Joints & Mounts
Screws & Bolts

Advantages:
Easy Cleaning
No Manual Effort Needed
Fast Board Cleaning

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Single Stage Gear Reducer Project

single-stage-gear-reducer1

Here we design and fabricate a single stage gear reducer system. This system makes use of gears with a motor to achieve the desired functionality. Gear reducers are widely used in gearboxes. One more use of gear reducers is in gear switching in automobiles. This system demonstrates the single stage gear reducer assembly using motorize shafts and gear mechanisms in a gearbox frame.

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 Robotic arm control through internet/LAN

 

robotic armIntroduction:

India is still classified as a developing country and as such has a set of hurdles to be overcome in the medical field. This is because basic medical amenities haven’t been provided to towns and cities.

The project  designs a robotic arm with the aid of a micro controller and performs all these operations.

Patients face problems in terms of facilities meted out to them as well as availability of trained doctors. By using a robotic arm, all these problems can be eliminated and doctors from anywhere can perform the operation. Robots are flexible in nature and can perform a wide array of operations that can’t be realized solely by a doctor.

Working:

In this project, an application will transmit the controlling data to a specific computer by sending corresponding IP address.

The Ethernet adapter configured with the specific IP address will receive the commands and send the information to micro controller via serial port.  This micro controller will control the robotic arm and sends appropriate signals to geared motor.

There is a micro controller in the robotic arm performing motor control operations. To view the patient’s status an RF camera is used and this is used to transmit it to the PC for the doctor to supervise. This project is mainly used to cut patient’s skin by high speed blades.

Conclusion:

The use of computer-aided robots offers exact motion and path so as to reduce the side-effects of surgical meditation. Use of robots offer higher insight into the anatomy of patients to perform smaller incisions. In case of emergencies, by using a robotic arm a person’s life could be saved.